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Introduction Edit

This is the wiki page for Dutch grammar. Dutch grammar is generally considered easy for an English speaker so it shouldnt be too difficult.This is mostly an overview or a reference page. This is not intended to be an extensive guide and you're probably best of using course book. I will assume that you already know the Dutch alphabet and spelling rules

This page is not even close to completion

Subjects are marked based of difficulty as follows:

★ :Lower beginner (Partially covered)

★★: Upper beginner (Partially covered)

★★★: Lower intermediate (Partially covered)

★★★★: Upper intermediate (Not covered yet)

★★★★★: Advanced (Not covered yet)

A Plus-sign (+) marks that Dutch natives often do this wrong, even if it is a relatively easy subject

Furthermore,

"1" Denotes that the second form is informal but very common

"2" Denotes that the second form is informal and officially wrong

Nouns Edit

Personal pronouns★ Edit

Dutch personal pronouns are somewhat similar to English and German ones. And just like in German and English they may not be ommited in combination with Verbs.

Nominative Edit

Singular

S. Person 1st 2nd 3rd
G

e

n

d

e

r

Male Ik Jij/je1 Hij
Female Ik Jij Zij
Neuter Ik Jij Het

Plural

P. Person 1st 2nd 3rd
G

e

n

d

e

r

Male Wij Jullie Zij/Hun2
Female Wij Jullie Zij/Hun2
Neuter Wij Jullie Zij/Hun2

Accusative Edit

Singular

S. 1st 2nd 3rd
Male Mij Jou Hem
Female Mij Jou Haar
Neuter Mij Jou Het

Plural

P. 1st 2nd 3rd
Male Ons Jullie Hen
Female Ons Jullie Hen
Neuter Ons Jullie Hen

Possesive pronouns ★ Edit

Possesive pronouns indicate (obvously) possesion

Singular Edit

S. 1st 2nd 3rd
M/n Mijn Jouw/Je2 Zijn
F Mijn Jouw/Je2 Haar

Plural Edit

P. 1st 2nd 3rd
M/N/F Ons Jullie Hun

Accusative pronouns ★ Edit

Accusative pronouns denote accusative functions in a sentence, just like English, Dutch does not have an accusative case beyond these pronouns

Singular Edit

S. 1st 2nd 3rd
M Mij/Me1 Jou/Je1 Hem
F Mij/Me1 Jou/Je1 Haar
N Mij/Me1 Jou/Je1 Het

Plural Edit

P. 1st 2nd 3rd
M/N/F Ons Jullie Hen/Hun2

Plurals ★ Edit

Plurals in Dutch are fairly easy for an English speaker and should mostly be fairly straightforward

-En or -S

Most nouns on these letters, there are no set rules for when a plural ends in one instead of another.

-'S Edit

" 'S " is for Plurals that would normally be written with an "s" without an apostrophe, but need the apostrophe for pronunciation and spelling purposes, Particularly for nouns that end on long vowels that would become short vowels if the "s" was added without an apostrophe

Examples Edit

Auto - Auto's (Auto ends on a long vowel)

Baby - Baby's (Baby ends on an y)

More explanation on those spelling rules in the Dutch spelling page, coming soontm

-Us Edit

Words that end on -Us end on -I in the plural form just like in Latin and English

-Um Edit

Nouns that en on -Um end on -A in the plural form

Diminutives ★★★ Edit

Turning a word into a diminutive is basically adding a suffix (-Je, -Etje, -Tje, -Kje or -Pje) to a noun to imply that the noun is smaller than it would normally be, it's difficult to explain so here are some examples

Hond - Dog

Hondje - Little Dog

Huis - House

Huisje - Small house

etc.

-Je, -Tje, -Etje, -Kje or -Pje ? Edit

-Je

Nouns that end on p, t, k, d, s or f get a -je suffix

-Tje

words that end on any vowel, or a long vowel followed by a "r" or "l" get a -Tje suffix

-Etje

Short vowels followed by r, l, n, m or ng get an -Etje suffix

-Kje

words that end on -ing get a -Kje suffix and the last "g" gets removed

-Pje

Nouns that end on a long vowel followed by a "m" get a -Pje suffix

Verbs Edit

Regular verbs (Present simple)★ Edit

Regular verbs go according to this table:

Quanity, person Te luisteren(to listen)
S.1 Ik luister
S. 2 Jij luistert
S.3 Hij luistert
P. 1 Wij luisteren
P. 2 Jullie luisteren
P. 3 Zij luisteren

Bold marks the endings

Common irregular verbs★ (partially finished) Edit

Te zijn(to be) Edit

1st 2nd 3rd
Singular Ik ben Jij bent Hij/zij is
Plural Wij zijn Jullie zijn Zij zijn

Hebben (to have) Edit

Qauntity,Person Hebben
S.1 Ik heb
S.2 Jij hebt
S.3 Hij heeft
P.1 Wij hebben
P.2 Jullie hebben
P.3 Zij Hebben

Note: The 3rd Person singular form(Hij heeft) is the only irregular one

Willen (to want) Edit

Q.P Willen
S.1 Ik wil
S.2 Jij wilt
S.3 Hij wil
P.1 Wij willen
P.2 Jullie willen
P.3 Zij willen

Note: The 3rd Person singular form(Hij wil) is the only irregular one

SVO2 word order ★★ Edit

The Dutch word order follows the SVO2, and because Dutch and German are the only languages that use it, it might be difficult for you to wrap their head around.

In short, Dutch sentences are formed according to the following pattern:

Subject+Auxiliary verb+Object+Location/Time/+Other Verbs

Examples Edit

(In the following examples the Auxiliary verbs are bold and other verbs are in Italics)

Hij wil straks fietsen ( he wants to ride his bike later)

Hij Moet alleen werken (He has to work alone)

Articles Edit

Dutch distinguishes between definite and indefinite articles:

Definite articles★+ Edit

Dutch has 2 types of denifite articles. One for male or female nouns(De), and one for neuter nouns(Het). Like French and German, there are no exact rules, but there are some general rules of thumb:

  • Plurals always use "De"
  • German speakers: German words and Dutch words often have the same Gender. Words that are neuter in German are often neuter in Dutch as well
  • Diminutives are always neuter
  • Names of language are often neuter. ( Het Nederlands)
  • Words that end on  -isme, -ment, -sel or -um are also often Neuter
  • Most words that represent people (especially female forms of those nouns) are often male/female

If you still aren't sure there are various sites like:https://www.welklidwoord.nl/ that show what definite article a word has.

Indefinite articles★ Edit

The indefinite article is always een. and is used in almost all contexts where you would use "A" in English.

één Edit

You may have noticed that the Dutch indefinite article and word for "one" are the exact same word (een). This luckily isn't much of a problem because they are used in similar situations. If someone still wants to place emphasis that it's "One" and not "A" they may use één for emphasis, this is not common in informal speech though.

Example Edit

Hij had maar een uur nodig!(He only needed an hour)

Hij had maar één uur nodig!(He only needed ONE hour)